Dr. Jason Fung: Fasting as a Therapeutic Option for Weight Loss

so what I’m gonna talk about today isintermittent fasting but before I get to that I anticipated I adoration dr. Davis’smessage about undoctored and unfortunately my excursion was much likehis I went through medical academy and then residency at UCLA and then I wentand did knee disease and did it for a lot of years like 10 years or so andthen realized that it really wasn’t helping a lot of people like theconventional remedies so so I deal with kidney disease the large-hearted the biggestcause of that is type 2 diabetes and so we would devote so much money on dialysisand drugs and drugs and drugs and it became obvious that I’m just sort ofholding their pas until they get their heart attack until they get dialysisuntil they go blind until we chop their hoofs off and it’s really sad tounderstand that the profession that you chosen is actually not really helpingpeople and at the same time we actually understand how to help people becausethese are all nutritional cankers if parties would lose weight the diabeteswould go away if you don’t get that BT’s type-2 diabetes then you don’t getdiabetic kidney malady well that’s pretty obvious but there’s no coin init so none was promoting this trash and it’s sad because you’re in thebusiness to help people and being a doctor unfortunately you get trained inthe system where you really time get taught what medications to get and whatprocedures to do and what surgery to give so we exited from the person that youwent to to keep you healthy to the person who tells you what medicine to giveeven if that’s not the cause and it’s sort of a sad state of affairs andthat’s what you know that’s what conducted me to start talking and blogging andwriting volumes and so on about these sort of things and why weuse things like intermittent fasting which nobody induces fund on and it sortof reminded everyone a conversation I had with a friend of mine so we’re in our2 0s and this guy is like the smartest guy I know “hes working” at Google and thenyou know he quitted after two years and retired at 40 rightso really really really smart guy and he supposed to say to me one time and I said hmm youknow how when you’re girls you think that adults you know they have their shittogether right and then you grow up and you realise nobody has their shittogether and it’s like yeah that’s true and it’s the same thing with being adoctor like you think that your doctor knows what the hell is going on and thenas a doctor you recognize they have no bloody idea what they’re doing out hereand that’s the whole problem and that’s why you approximately have to take you knowmatters into your own hands you have to take your state into your own handsbecause you’re not gonna hear it from the media you’re not gonna hear it fromthe doctors and sometimes you gotta you got to do that cuz this is just like dr.Davis I get I get emails from beings they say oh thanks for writing the bookI listen to you I you know lost thirty pounds I got myself off of insulin mya1c is now normal so therefore by definition you’re not diabetic and Ithink okay that’s great and then I always think to myself which I don’t sayto them I ever think to myself why did you have to do that despite your doctornot because of your doctor but despite your doctor and that’s a very extremely verysad you know statement on the circumstance ofthings I had a patient once who I accompanied in the IDM clinic they are doing great theylost heavines they they were on insulin for 20 times and I went him off in likefour months is ridiculous and their a1c was normal so again non diabetic and shewas like oh I’m so happy she went to her endocrinologist who’s a diabetesspecialist and he says oh good racket and then he/ she told him he was fasting andhe screamed at her freedom it’s like oh my god like any chump can see thatthis lady was so much healthier and more you go to your specialist and they tellyou now you should stop what you’re doing which is making you healthier andeverybody can see that and going to go to your diet that’s gonna manufacture you sick anddiabetic which is gonna lead to your amputation and your kidney ailment it’slike you know sometimes medication is just such a such a reasoning free zone it’s likeridiculous so what we’re gonna talk about is another of these things thathas been used it’s an intervention intermittent fasting that has been usedfor thousands of years and recently it’s gotten more popular but when I startedto use it about five years ago it was considered quackery freedom so it wasreally thought to be so dangerous that you know the people had to warn themagainst listening to me because undoubtedly we know that you know you haveto employed muffins in your speak every three hours to survive so that’s the realproblem of things so this is what we’re gonna talk about sorry this is the ohsorry this is not okay so I’m going to talk about periodic fasting and kindof a little bit of how we got now so it’s about obesity and this is sort ofwhere things came from right and you you all know this so in 1977 when they cameout with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans I don’t think they were tryingto kill people but they seek to do the best that they could but theproblem is that they you know they said oh you should eat lots of carbs which isokay if you’re an op na when dining like 90% sugared potato but if you’re eatingall refined cereals then maybe it’s not the best thingand you should lessening your fat and this is the real problem this is theoriginal food pyramid from the 1980 s and you can see that bread pasta and riceare like the face of that food pyramid so every day you’re supposed toeat like six or seven slivers of bread and we this was 1980 and we all thoughthey this is fantastic so we all did it because we’re trying to be healthful andthe government was telling us that this is what we should do nobody reallythinks that white bread is all that slimmingso that’s the problem but that wasn’t their point the point was actually totry and combat heart disease which of course was probably the exact wrongthing to do but that’s what we consider at the time so everybody likes to blamethe people that is oh yeah we presented him great advice but they didn’t listen butreally they did listen so if you look at consumption of butter you know way downeggs animal protein and we eat cereals and sugar carbohydrate that was actually notsupposed to they didn’t recommend it but they in the sort of hysteria of anti fatthey’re like yeah sugar is not so bad so jelly beans and trash were you knowthey’re fat-free right so they it’s 100% fat-free so this is the whole problemand you know we ever try to blame parties we say well you know the obesitycrisis is because people didn’t listen to us it’s like they did listen to usthe advice was not good but people can’t be recognized that and that’s the problemso sugar was a particular problem because you can see that the you can seethat the when the dietary guidelines came out this sort of like sugar was notso bad for you so they they they increase their consumption of sugar andso you can also see that specks increase the uptake as well so it had beendropping until the 1970 s and then actually started to take off and if you ever ifyou if you live through that period of the 1980 s 1990 s when there’s this realhysteria about five you understand you know big-hearted dishes of past that oh greatthat’s fantastic right and they we learned that in school oh yeah youshould chip your fatty cut out the butter cut out the paste sauce but have a bigplate of pasta so this was something that we are educated but the other thingthat we don’t often talk about is that we’re also ingesting a lot more frequentlyand I think it was sort of inadvertent because what happens is if you eat a lotof refined particles and a lot of beings was told you ate a couple of slices ofbread well a duet hours later you’re actually really really hungry so thenyou want to go eat a muffin at ten thirty this is why we proceeded from ingesting threetimes a day so if you look at 1977 you can see that this is the an hain surveyso it’s a big large nutritional overlook in the marrow1 977 you can see most people are eating three meals a dayso again if you live through the 1980 s as you grow up you to eat breakfastlunch and dinner nothing was chewing snacks none who’s eating bedtimesnacks none was chasing the adolescents around between the halves of soccergiving him liquid and cookies that was what we did if you were hungry afterschool you’d ask your mom for a snack you’d say no you’re gonna ruin yourdinner and that was that if you’re hungry after dinner he said you she saidyou should ingest more that dinner and that was itright there is no snacks and that was the whole point so you exited from eatingthree times a day to eating six times per day right so if you look at my son’sschedule and I don’t have that much regulate over it is because it’sbreakfast in that school you get a snack and then at lunch and then after schoolyou go to program you get a snack and you have dinner and then you knowbetween soccer somebody dedicates them a snack six times a day it’s like that’sbefore you know it and we educate these minors we ingrained this indoctrinatethese kids into thinking that you must eat all the time so it doesn’t feel sowrong because everybody’s doing it and my teacher told me and you think theyhave to shit together right so it’s like yeah that must be correct so then you goto the modern eating motif and this is data from a duet several years ago so theygave beings a smartphone app and then they said you know check every time youeat and the the dot is when they eat and if you look at where it is you can seethat parties start eating in the morning and they certainly really don’t stop untillike 11 p.m.And this is the whole problem of the modern eating structure isthat we’re devouring very very often so you can see that we’re in 1977 everybody’seating three times a day the lowest 10% of beings are eating three times a daythe highest 10% of people are eating 11 times per day and that’s not becausepeople didn’t listen to us it’s because we tell them you should eat six eras aday should snack tiny frequent snacks all the time but we never did that beforeno Society in human history has ever done that before because we have work todo we’re not like oh yeah you know goingout in the field and it’s like yeah I could really use a little cookie rightthere’s no reason to do that because it’s very very difficult but that’s whatit is now because when we utter these convenience foods which are highlyprocessed and usually with a great deal of cereals and sugars so that we can eatthis frequently and then we tell them they should and we’re eating later somost of the calories are spent before noon and you can see that you know we’reeating all the time as well so the median daily chewing duration is 14 hoursand 45 times that’s the average right that’s the median I should say ofeverybody so if you started eating at 8 a. m.You wouldn’t stop until 10:45 p.m.that’s the 50 th percentile right slit beings are eating more than that they’restarting at 7 a. m. and not in stalking until 11 p.m. so the only go we’re noteating is when we’re sleeping and that’s one of the big problems because you knowthat every time you dined your insulin is going to go up assuming you’re eating amixed banquet and the insulin is actually a hormone that tells your body to storefood vigor right I want the whole problem of ecity is not really all thatdifficult if insulin goes up your figure is supposed to store that nutrient energywhen you don’t eat when you fast then your person is supposed to take that foodenergy back out and burn it and that’s the reason that you don’t die in yoursleep every single night it’s because you store it and then use it right andthis is the problem if you eat instant goes up you accumulate it if insulin goesdown you burn it but you are unable do one or another if you deplete all your timeeating then you’re gonna devote all your time putting food in it’s like a one-wayvalve the nutrient is going in it never comes back out so what’s gonna happenover day you’re going to gain weight so that’s not really so difficult in factthe the English language itself provides the clue because it says you should eatbreakfast break fast that’s the banquet that smashes your fast so you have tofast healthy living is balanced right so youhave to balance the which is the Fed state and you knowdigestion or the fasted district if you wasted eat three meals a day over 12 hours you have 12 hours of feeding 12 hours of fasting good 12 hours a dayyou’re set meat in 12 hours a day you’re making food out now you’reputting menu in kind of 13 15 16 hours of the working day and not making it out becauseeven after a dinner it takes a few hours before your insulin goes back down soyou know and on the other side of course as soon as you gobbled your insulin goes upright away so it’s a there’s a bit of an imbalance so you’re spending not just1 415 hours with your insulin high because it takes 3 or 4 hours for yourinsulin to come back down to get into the fasted State you’re really talking1 7 18 19 hours in the fed district and now instead of 12 and 12 you’re talkingabout kind of 18 and 6 or something like that so you’re eating all the timeyou’re set menu vigor in all the timeand what was the problem the problem was that now we have this big obesity crisisbut there’s two main issues other than the carbohydrates that and the sugarthat we were told to eat it’s also the frequency we’re dining merely toofrequently so the whole problem of weight loss it is very clear so theBiggest Loser is just in a present where people compete to lose weight and theynever do a reunion establish since they are all addition their value back and this is theproblem everybody knows it so anybody who’s tried to lose weightknows that it’s really really hard to come that off and this sort of calorierestriction diet which has cut a few calories off of each meal 500 calories aday but munch six times a day that sort of advice is the sort of standard admonition soif you look at the Biggest Loser diet for example you reduce your caloriesyour increase your workout and it grades really well in these kind of positions ofdiets numeral three for weight loss ketogenic diets on the other hand weredead last so that’s what people think this is what the the sort of nutritionalauthorities think about weight loss this is what you should doand we claim we’re living in this era ofevidence-based remedy that is okay if you think it works well show me thestudy to show that it works well we’ve done those studies so this is thetoday’s study for example published in the New England Journal Medicine whichis actually the probably the most prestigious medical journal in the worldand what they did is they took this approach which is calorie deficitapproach which is decreasing energy intake you know cutting doubt the fatcutting out the sugar the carbohydrate probably a good thing and then they compared sortof life-style everybody got metformin which is adiabetic drug because these were type 2 diabetics everybody got metformin andthen you either go rosy shimmer zone which in fact motived a bit of weightgain on the right and on the pink but then you too have this the thelifestyle versus no lifestyle treatment so chipping your calories increasing yourenergy because this is what they’re trying to do you can see that this greenline they started out a figure mass index of 34 and after you know five years ofhard work he conclude with a mas mass index of 34 so it didn’t really work atall he only got back to baseline through a lot of hard work at the fifth time ifbefore that you’re actually gaining weight so this is this is the approachit doesn’t work and this is the diabetes prevention planned which is the samething so if you look at lifestyle which is the the circle you can see that inthe first six months you do really great you lose a lot of weight six sevenkilograms 15 pounds but by the end of that four or 5 year again yourweight loss is no different thing if you did nothing at all so if you got nodietary advice you didn’t chipped your calories it didn’t make any differenceright so there’s the evidence though so we have this intervention and cuttingcalories little few calories every day it doesn’t really work this is theWomen’s Health Initiative which is a huge randomized ensure trouble almost5 0,000 maidens again here it is these women are cutting approximately 360 calories every day and they’re doing it year after year and theyincrease our utilization so this is metabolicequivalency travelled from ten to eleven target one about a 10% increase in theirphysical act they’re moving more they’re walking more and all that wellwhat happened well here’s the difference overall at the end of seven eight nineyears there’s barely any difference at all if you value waist circumferenceand so on you might conceive oh well they’re actually gaining more muscle itturns out they’re not there’s actually no inconsistency at all so here we havethree randomized button troubles of this calorie curbed diet and it doesn’twork we’ve proved it and yet if you go to talk to your doctor he’ll say wellwhat you need to do is just chipped your calories and employ more calories incalories out there you go it’s like but it’s not trueyou know it doesn’t work we’ve proved it doesn’t work and the hardest part – forpeople to understand is this is when people stay on their food because thisis this is a study so you weigh the people who stay on their food thesepeople are not miscarrying because they fail to follow the diet they’re failingbecause the diet doesn’t work and this is what’s really important because wetend to ascribe a lot of blame on to the victims we play this game calledblame-the-victim which is that as we gave you this advice to lose weight youdidn’t lose weight because you didn’t follow the advice so we’re blaming thembut they’re the ones who are suffering they’re the ones we’re getting sickthey’re the ones participate in the diabetes and that’s like “the worlds largest” unfair thing we dobecause the evidence shows that this approach actually time doesn’t work andwe know this doesn’t work truly if you look at the UK general tradition databasewhat you can do is look at people who have tried to lose weight abusing thissort of advice and the probability of achieving a ordinary weight if you’remorbidly obese is 0.1% in other words this diet that we recommend as doctorsis has a 99.9 percent flop charge but when you disappoint we’re gonna accuse youhundred percent of the time like that’s that’s the reality of modernmedicine everybody knows this everybody says this so you make these sort ofbible of diabetes say Jocelyn’s diabetes it says well you know restriction ofcalories is the cornerstone more none of these approaches has only one proven deserve soas in we know it doesn’t work but we’re gonna recommend it right hand becauobesity dietary therapy reduction of energy results of such diets are knownto be poor and not long-lasting so we know it doesn’t work but we’re gonnarecommend it anyway and you know that’s so illogical like earnestly seriouslybad so we actually know why it doesn’t work because we’ve studied this over ahundred years we know why this sort of chipped 500 calories a date every single dayjust doesn’t work because of slacken metabolism that is there’s two mainproblems one is the slow-going metabolism if you trimmed somebody’s calories downtheir daily energy expenditure is also going to go down so this study fromnineteen seventeen so as in a hundred years ago we knew this if you cut theircalorie its uptake by about thirty percentage what they see is a 30% reductionin basal metabolism you see it in Ancel keys –is biology of human starvationwhich was actually not a famine study it was a fifteen hundred calorie aday nutrition so not very different than anything that we recommend now so wethink beings make say 2,000 calories you are able to cut it to 1500 that’s what thisstudy is so when you cut their calories by about 40% guess what their metabolicrate fells by about 40% their soul loudnes decreased 20% the heart rateslowed the body temperature goes down because it’s it takes a lot of energy toto burn to burn those calories to generate body heat so if your your bodydoesn’t want to burn so much because it’s not coming in so much better and we’veproven this and in the in the lab – so Rudy Leibel he did this fantasticexperiment where he took parties and he he uttered them their at their initialweight he made them gain weight by force-feeding them the government has us you knowthis milkshake that they are required to take so they gain 10% value then they went to back to their initial load then they went to see 10% weight loss and at all points they assessed their basal metabolic proportion soyou be understood that 10% mas value advantage your form actually ramps up its metabolismit’s burning about 500 calories per date more it’s trying to burn it off right asyou go back to your initial heavines it goes back to his baseline and as youlose weight you’re burning about 300 calories a day less so you can’t justsay oh I’m gonna cut you know this is the big fallacy of these calories andcalories out beings because if you simply trimmed your calories by dining lessyour torso will respond by earning less and then you’re gonna plateau and thenyou’re gonna regain that weight and then somebody you’re gonna face that sort ofmassive wall of condensation of oh you let yourself depart it doesn’t work likecome on we’ve already proven that and you hope that this this sort of thinggoes away after a while but it never does so if you overfeed parties the TEwhich is total energy expenditure goes up if you under feed people the totalexpenditure goes down and it persists over season and persists over a year sogetting back to the Biggest Loser this is really what happens here is that ifyou measure these contestants and say when you know 6 weeks and 30 weeks whatyou find is that they’ve lost a lot of weight so it’s great so they’ve lostthey went from 329 pounds to 202 pounds torso fat went from 49 percent to 28 percentage over six weeks so you see the results on the Tv they are so beautiful sothat’s great but what happened to their metabolism and this is what happens yousee before they started they were the dark circle after they at 30 weeks so 6months roughly they that’s the open halo and what you can see is thateverybody’s basal metabolism the amount of calories are burning every day andthis is not exercise this is to keep your brain working to keep your liverworking to keep your lungs labor it’s going nature down so this poor guy overhere for example starts off at 3500 calories and hewent all the way down to here which is like 1800 calories a dayso almost 1,700 calories per era he’s burning less than he did before andyou wants to know why his calorie curbed diet is stopping working because yourmetabolic paces croaking course method practice down so this is what you see in the BiggestLoser so if you look at the the shaded domain that’s the that’s your basalmetabolism that’s not including utilization the grey saloon on top is the exercise sowhat you do is in the evidence of course they try and make up for it with insaneamounts of utilization so you can boost that up but then as “theres going” your yourbasal metabolic proportion is still going down and this is the problem right so theygot off the display they’re not doing eight hours a day of whatever it is they’redoing and that lily-white saloon is goes back to sort of normal and then that’s itthey’re not burning the calories so even after they reduce their calories theirweight goes back up so you see this when when you look at the Biggest Loserexcept for this guy who had the stomach surgery their basal metabolic theirtheir heavines goes all back off you know some people of 50 pounds more than theydid at the beginning and then but it’s because their basal metabolic charge isslowing so much better and this is the whole problem is that we are of the view that energyout abides stable title so it’s a two locker difficulty that’s the wholething so if you have a a factorize for example you know energy grow coalburning factory you have energy in which is the coal and then when it goes inyour body actually has two ways to use it you can either burn it for vigor oryou can store it as solid claim so the intensity comes in and say the coal comesin you can either burn it or you can store it when you feed calories you havethe same option you can burn it or you can store it as body fat privilege so if youreduce the amount of energy in so say you reduce the amount of coal that comesin what we hope is that you save burning the same amount of energy and then thefat accumulates will come down right well terrific so if you’re themanager of a coal burning factory for exampleyou know you get a little less call you still burn the same and then you justdecrease the amount of stores well that would be good except that’s not whathappens what actually happens is that the overweight collects bide the same your energygoes down your power out vanishes data down and that’s the problem so the wholefallacy of calories and calories out is that that abides stable but it doesn’tyou’ve known that for a hundred years we have all the studies to prove that itdoesn’t work and the problem is not what you’re putting in the problem is thiscontrol right here this is the main problem not this so everybody points tothis but you actually have to control this because if this comes in and itgoes out as vitality it’s okay if this comes in and exits over to solid storesthen you’re not okay so you’re really talking about thehormonal control of energy partitioning that’s the whole problem how do youcontrol it how do you command those hormones the second big problem ishunger so what we see is that if you lose weight then you get more hungry sothis is again published in the New England Journal of Medicine they tookpeople they lost weight and then they set something announced ghrelin whichis the hunger hormone and that’s here so pitch-black is baseline and then we 10 -week 62 what you find is that as you lose weight so you lose weight but the heavines slowlycomes back on but at all points again you can see that the growlin rank ishigher in other words you stay hungry with weight loss so you see this interms of it will alter the ghrelin which is the hormonal arbitrator is goingto translate into higher levels of hunger so this is the big problem so youknow that if you lose weight and you don’t controller those sort of things thenyou’re going to not be able to control the hunger and you’re gonna eat andagain this is not just a lack of willpower this is realphysiology here it’s like if we did that to any one of you you would be hungrierand you would eat because that’s the physiology but we don’t do thatright we blame beings and we say oh yeah you know you couldn’t stop yourself fromeating it’s like yeah because they’re ghrelin is higher you never controlledthe hormonal referees and that’s the real issue of the body provide weight whichis that the adaptation to weight loss is to reduce your intensity payment andincrease your starve what I’m gonna do is we’re just gonna move past this alittle bit so one of the problems is this right so you have to actuallycontrol insulin which is going to be the hormonal peacemaker of what’s going towhere this energy is going to go if you don’t verify it then you’re gonna loseso if you trimmed 500 calories per period by reducing the fatty off your flesh forexample that dietary flab has almost no insulin effect it has 500 calories butno insulin effect your insulin is merely a high so if insulin is highyou’re gonna direct all that energy towards your solid places and this isthat’s where you’re gonna lose so how does fasting help this difficulty well ifyou look at the metabolic conversion as a fasting what the hell are you see is that the basalmetabolic charge is maintained so this is four daylights of fasting what you can see isthat the top is the value the space it is steadily coming down but re E is theresting energy equivalent and what you see is that at the end of four epoches ofnot snacking your major basal metabolic rate is actually 10% higher than whenyou started and the vo2 which is a measure of howmuch you know energy or burning is the same and it’s because there are otherhormonal mutates that is as insulin goes down other hormones go up so insulin iscoming down but then your counter regulatory hormones goes up includingsomething announced noradrenaline or norepinephrine as well as yoursympathetic mood and swelling hormone those are the counter regulatoryhormones and they go up and that’s how you maintain your basal metabolic breakafter 22 periods of intersperse daily fasting for example what you see is that the RMRwhich is your resting metabolic frequency leads from 66 70 63 to 6300 which is notsignificantly different this study likened CR which is calorie restrictionto to alternate daily fasting again you look at the adjusted resting metabolicrate the box on the right shows you that the caloric rule abbreviates yourenergy output by 76 calories a daylight the fasting group only went down by 29 whichwere the p-values point 4 which means that’s not statistically significant soagain this is one of the big problems of weight loss long-term weight loss isthis metabolic rate and because the fasting improves the hormonal changesabout the exertion apportioning it’s not actually it’s not actually giving youthe same problems because your body is not just ratcheting down its energyexpenditure what it’s done is it’s switched over its gasoline beginnings from foodto body fatten because that’s what mas fattened is for it’s for you to use when you havenothing to eat it’s not there for appears it’s for you to use so use it that’s allyou need to do don’t got something silly like devour six times per day chipped your fatand chipped a few cases calories the other problem is hunger and this is this is againghrelin we’re looking at fasting and ghrelin so they took beings they fastedfor 24 hours and then they evaluated their ghrelin at all time phases andthis is one of the things I always “ve learned that” if you don’t snack that muffin you’regonna be so hungry you know you’re gonna trash your face subsequentlies so whatactually happens when you don’t chew for 24 hours so those are those things ontop that’s breakfast lunch and dinner you see that girl Ellen does spike soyou do get hungry at that time but what happens when you don’t eat lunch so sayyou bounce lunch this is the first one al does move Ellen only keep going up and upand up no in fact when you get to 4 o’clock joerger Ellen has gone back downto baseline because this this line is here’s baseline that is you’re about ashungry eating lunch as not feeing lunch and the same thing happens at dinnertime joerger Ellen goes off yes then you don’t eat in several hours it just goesright back down to baseline so the starve doesn’t build and build and buildshe comes as a movement if you ride out that beckon they’ll just go back to baselineand we’ve all done this right so you’ve been so hectic you work right throughlunch I intend did this tons of times in medical school you’re too busy youdidn’t eat dinner yeah at 12 o’clock you’re hungry at 1 o’clock you’re hungryat 4 o’clock it’s as if nothing happened it’s as ifyou ate lunch and you just prevented driving and we know this happens because we’veall done this before and we know that it’s just yeah you might eat a littlebit more at dinner but you’re not like gravan ously starving and it’s okay tonot gobble because what’s happened is that your form has made that food energyfrom your person fat and that’s perfect that’s exactly what we wanted to do theinteresting part is when you go into the multiple-day fast what you see is thatover you know four or five days the gallon goes up and down but over theensuing eras it actually croaks lower and lower and lower and we see this with thewith the people who are doing sort of four or five days of fasting at a timethat the starvation actually starts to disappear because you’re fueling yourbody through your body overweight so then you don’t have that starve anymore andyou’re getting more efficient at exploiting it so therefore it’s a great strategysome people say oh wow wives it doesn’t help it is about to change if you look at growlinwomen have a much bigger spike in growlin than men and so if you look atfood desires and so on maidens tend to feel it more so they actually get morebenefit because some people say oh maidens should never fast it’s like why they gotmore is conducive to that than anybody else and the weight loss is the same if youlook at food cravings for example you can compare a low-grade calorie food to a verylow calorie nutrition so it’s interesting because you can take any of thesecravings sugaries or high-pitched solid what it is you employed them on a twelve thirteen hundredcalorie a day nutrition those lusts don’t do anything so this is the measure ofthe craves and this is how much they have thirsts the low-pitched calorie diet doesnothing but if you eat practically nothing at allthe itches merely disappear because the hungers are like an irritation so any parentknows that if your child is really itchy the last thing youreally want to do this Pratchett because it’s gonna get more itchy and cravingsare the same so by going into these instrument fasting where you’re reallyallowing good-for-nothing at all that’s gonna realize more benefit for your hungers thanthe other and controlling hunger is the big issue it’s not about controllingcalories I mean that’s like grade school stuff right you have to control themetabolic rate and you have to control your starvation signaling that’s what’simportant and what’s really interesting is that if you go to very low caloriediets as “were starting to” refeed what you can see is that the the the cravingsdon’t go back so they start up out here but even after six weeks of refeedingthe desires have gone away so you’re sort of reprogramming your figure for thatso this is the again the changes so when you equate realize R which is calorierestriction to alternate daily fasting if you look at the box what you can seeis that the guerrilla is significantly different if you look at calorierestriction this one the ghrelin goes up by seventy one so you’re more hungryafter doing this calorie restriction the intersperse daily fasting is merely up by Ithink it’s 16 but the p-value is 0.5 which entails it’s not significantlydifferent again the calorie regulation daily calorie rule making morehunger the alternating daily fasting making less emptines and that’s a hugehuge gargantuan responsibility so if you look at long-term weight loss what you see isthat chronic calorie limited trimming the fatty chop your calories gobbling sixtimes a day so you’re keep your insulin high but putting your calorieswhat you get is an increase in hunger and a decrease in metabolism and this iswhat happens your value plateau your force starts to regain and you’re likeoh don’t even look at me right as you as you face that sort of you know all thatjudgmental people who are like oh yeah you shouldn’t have recaptured that direction itwasn’t their mistake because we know that this is all physiology as opposed tofasting where your hunger abates your metabolic rate bides stable or goes upand you’re like yeah let’s go so that’s the wholewhy don’t we actually do this for beings right it’s because there’s so many mythswith periodic fasting people say well you shouldn’t do this you shouldn’tdo this you’re gonna burn muscle right that’s one of the more common things Ihear if you don’t chew you’re gonna burn muscle and it’s actually absolutely no truth to the rumors if youlook at studies for example this study where they compared fasting so it’s 70 eras of intersperse daily fasting you can see that the solid mass has gone down fromforty three part five to thirty eight target one and the solid free lord yourlean mass departed from fifty one point nine sorry fifty one point four to fifty onepoint nine so in fact your bend muscle was retained again remember whatyou’re doing is you’re fell insulin and growing rise hormones so that whenyou chew you’re gonna rebuild that protein so you’re maintaining that leanmass if you look at this study again from 2016 if you compare the the twogroups calorie restriction versus alternating daily fast and what you see isthat the truncal fat mass is much better with the alternating daily fasting so onepoint eight percent versus 0.3% and this is the really dangerous stuff right thefat that’s carried around your belly so that is like six days better but if youlook at lean mass it’s it’s so calorie rule is up by 0.5 percent becauseyou’ve lost some flab but alternative daily fasting is up by two station twopercent in other words it’s like four times better at maintaining lean mass sothis whole idea oh you’re gonna burn muscle it’s just a hour and if youthink about it again do you think that our person is designed so stupidly that westore form meat energy as body overweight and when we need it we’re gonna burn proteinit’s like yeah that’s a good theme like you got to thinkthat baby mood is so stupid we think we’re so smart and humans are so smartand mother nature’s so stupid you know we’ve been here for millions of yearsyou you store organization fat so that you can use it when there’s nothing to eatyou’re not gonna burn your protein it’s like you know collecting all this firewoodand then the you need something for your wood-burningstove you chop up your sofa and jettison it in the firelike honestly do you think that’s the human body like the human body is notthat stupid and the other thing that people say oh yeah you can’t do it rightyeah that’s great plan but nobody’s gonna do it right it’s like nothing likeall the Buddhists that don’t do it like all the Muslims you don’t do it all theCatholics who don’t do it all the Jews who don’t do it I convey literallybillions of people around the world follow this because of religion becauseof spirituality for whatever reason they do it millions of people have been doingthis for thousands of years like at least since the time of like zero or youknow aha Jesus when he said oh yeah you are able to fast like during Lent and so onlike it’s thousands of years we’re talking of a human history that peoplehave done it and Oh since 1970 it’s a really bad notion because modern person is sosmart and yet we got this obesity epidemic the different types two diabetes epidemicand we still tell people you should never fast ever it’s like that’sridiculous so it doesn’t work is another avoid it’s like well if you don’t eatyou’ll probably lose weight and I situated this in because some people say oh womenit doesn’t work in and it’s like well it does because when you put them on fastwomen lose weight at the same rate as gentlemen it’s it’s it if you don’t devour you’regonna lose weight and and the thing about fasting is that we’re talkingabout something we’re dealing with something completely different than dietokay so diet is something that tells you should I chew this or should I snack thisright if I conceive I’m has spoken about that at all fasting is dealing witheverything outside the period that you’re eating so it has nothing to dowith diet you can eat a high fat food or you can do a vegetarian food that hasnothing to do with fasting fasting is really dealing with a completelyseparate was a matter of when you should eat that is you should eat within a certaintime or whether you should or shouldn’t eat it’s a completely different questiontherefore it’s a much more powerful because you can add it to sort of anydiet and that’s really a lot of the advantageso it’s flexible for example you could do it this week and not do it next weekyou could it’s convenient because you don’t if you don’t gobble you don’t have toshop you don’t have to concoct you don’t have to eat and you don’t have to cleanup and it’s like candidly that’s the above reasons I don’t eat breakfast because Iwake up at 7 I wanna be out by 7:15 so if I miss a shower I’m not gonna snack andit’s it’s so much easier and my lad does this and all the teens do thisbecause they wake up so I wake up 20 minutes before I get out my son wakes uptwo minutes before he gets out the door right so it’s convenient for peoplebecause you don’t have to do it and this is one of the things we everybody has busylives we all say oh you know you should eat a home-cooked meal every single timeit’s like that’s a great idea but it takes a lot of time this is not thatthis is gonna actually give you back period so when I get hectic I tend to domore because I have work to do it’s free so this is a huge advantage like if youdeal with disadvantaged people’s if you’re dealing with native peoplespeople who exactly don’t have the resources to pie clergyman fret you know pastor Ipastor fed you know organic produce it’s like that’s great stuff but it’sexpensive like these people are not browsing at Whole Foods they’re they gotthey got a budget and this is going to give them back coin it’s not just freeactually gives you back coin because you don’t have to buy all this substance andit’s simple so again you can take these diets like ketogenic foods for exampleyou can say well you know they’re great but they’re complicated so I deal withthe 65 70 time old Filipino lady who doesn’t speak much English and you knowshe’s been eating this nature her behavior for 65 70 times it’s very hard to change herbut it’s a lot easier to say well these banquets don’t eat and precisely treat it like amedical therapeutic intervention you’re gonna let your body burn off the sugarthen you’re not going to need your insulin and they understand that andit’s simpler it is the easier it is and that’s the whole point you can add thisto any nutrition because it’s not about the nutrition it’s about a completely separatequestion so whether it’s meat or wheat or nuts or you don’t have time you don’thave money you’re traveling all the time you don’t cook all of this stuff you canstill use the fasting and one of the things that ever pleads to the sortof doctors is that you have it gives you sort of this unlimited ability because thereason why people like it is because if you have a drug for example like insulinyou can prescribe you can give it and you are familiar with certain doses have a maximumdose so you give metformin and there’s a peak dose parties like insulin becauseyou can just keep ramping the dose well fasting is the same like if you take adiet like a vegetarian diet and you don’t do well well you can’t get anymore vegetarian to get better makes right it doesn’t work that nature or ifyou’re doing hot genic nutrition it’s like you can’t get more ketogenic because ifthat didn’t work for you it didn’t work for you that’s the bottom line but withthe fasting it’s almost inconceivable that you can you can not lose weightbecause if you don’t eat you have to lose weight so nothing suspenses that it’sjust the the above reasons beings tell you not to do it is because they say it’s sounhealthy for you but it’s actually the opposite is true and again we get backto this idea that you know what’s so you know disconcerting about the whole thingis that these sort of projects are not new they’re actually the oldest impressions thatever came about like I didn’t make this stuff up it came from Jesus Christ itcame from the Prophet Muhammad it came from Buddha yeah the three mostinfluential people in the history of the world like they only probably agreed onthat one thing so we’ve practised this throughouthumanity throughout human history and yet as we get into the 21 st century wethink that our old-fashioned souls are so stupid that it’s not going to help you so youknow these are these are like the oldest ideas in the book and and and they’re sopowerful and they’re so and there’s so much physiology behind it we’ve studiedthis for hundreds of years and why can’t we do it right and theanswer always comes back to there’s no fund in it there’s no coin in it likethat’s it and this is why these sort of things are so important to get theseideas out there because the point is not to make money I don’t make money if youfast and do well I don’t making such a coin but I get paid in a different way rightsame as statement we get paid in a different way which is that we understand thatwe’re actually able to help move the needle for human health and we’reallowing beings to take control of their own health because if you have obesityif you have type 2 diabetes you’re no longer have to say oh wow I have to gosee my doctor to see what pill I need I should get going participate my doctor to see if heneeds to lodge a stent in me no we’re giving you the power to take back yourown health because you’re not gonna get it from anywhere else thank you thank you so much for that presentationso we are going to start with some questions from the storey and even youhave a question that they’d like to ask dr.Fung Thank You dr. Fung that was wonderfulI wanted to clarify a little bit about the caloric consignment and some of thedifferent fasting approaches you spoke about so let’s say in a calorierestriction sit they would have someone eat 1,600 calories a day downfrom a 2,000 calorie a period nutrition in an occasional fasting kind program wouldyou still have them chew the 2,000 calories a daylight in a six-hour window eachday or in the alternate daily fasting are they feeing 2,000 calories the daythey eat and zero the calorie the day they don’t eat or how does that workyeah so that’s a great question again the fasting exclusively prescribes the amountof time that you’re not eating so whether you eat all your calories inthat time or you don’t eat that numerous calories in that time is really talkingabout the nutrition so in most duration I actually don’t recommend parties countcalories I don’t think it’s a beneficial thing to do because the body doesn’tcount calories it’s not a physiologic trouble what you want to do is eat untilyou’re full I mean they did that in the 50 s and it worked out fine for them butwhat you have to do is really cut out all of these refined meat so a lot ofthe refined specks solely there a lot of the sugar specific so ifyou’re eating things like flesh and real menu and veggies and so on you’regonna get full at a certain point because again we meditate our forms are sostupid but the truth is that we have multiple overlapping satiety mechanismsthat is to say if you gobbled protein you’re a prostitute groan announced peptide why why goesup if you need fat cholecystokinin goes up if you dine a lot of fibrous meat youactivate elongate receptors in your belly so we have multiple overlappingmechanisms that tell us not to eat and they’re very powerful because if youthink back to a time where you went to the Chinese buffet and you devour a lot offood and so on and you said whoa I can’t dine anymore like the seeing of those porkchops might compile you nauseated but half an hour ago you’re gobbling them downright and that’s because you’ve activated the satiety mechanism so youhave to get back to that but the the sort of processed foods evade that so ifyou’re eating you know you’ve had that large-scale buffet and then youcan’t eat anymore steak but if someone says well hey is it you people want this cookieyou’re like yeah sure because it doesn’t activate those same satiety mechanismsso the point is not to count your calories because that’s ultimatelyself-defeating you could take Diet Coke for example zero calories but it doesn’thave zero insulin effect and it’s gonna prepare you more hungry so the point isthat during that six hour span you were able to take as countless calories as you why Idon’t recommend people but stick with real food Whole Foods and your person will tellyou when to stop if you decide that it’s not working then you simply extend andsay okay well that didn’t work so I’ll do a 24 -hour fast and circulate from there butcounting calories in general is not something I recommend so you might begetting the full amount of calories but really in a centralized period of timebut more likely you’re actually going to reduce the amount of calories becauseit’s hard to leant all those calories so for example if you’re portable if you’refasting three four daylights you’re not gonna be able to eat 15,000 calories and thatone sitting afterwards so most of the time you’re going to naturally restrictyour calories all day you’re gonna eat more so if you devoured say one meal a daywhich is like a 24 -hour fast for example occasions are that meal you’re going toeat more than you commonly do but not like three times as much to compensatefor the breakfast and lunch that you did didn’t do but again stick to the realfood stick to the full foods and you’re gonna do fine because your body actuallyhas the same mechanism that’s why in the 50 s and 60 s nobody counted calories andeverybody was thin because this is this is sort of a natural state you have tolet beings disappear but if you try and circumvent all these mechanisms byeating a lot of processed foods by dining invariably then that’s why you’restarting gain weight because you’ve by-passed the satiety and that’s whyyou feed bread and jam in morning and then by 10:30 it’s like oh I’m hungryand then the dietician says well the bread and jam was great because it is solow fat but then at 10:30 it’s like disappear get a low-fat muffin so that’s theproblem you’ve thwarted those satiety mechanisms and now you’re hungryagain but if everybody knows if you dined steak and eggs in the morning oh I thinkthat thing precisely sits there right it only doesn’t move and thenyou’re like 10:30 well I’m not gonna travel come that low fat muffin because it’slike what steak is still there because there are those natural satietymechanisms so don’t counting your calories but you ordinarily will when you trimmed thetime it are certainly sort of come down anyway I time want to take a textquestion here real quick which I have heard you talk about before if someonehas a history of eating disorders is there a risk that participating inintermittent fasting could trigger those demeanors would you approach the processany differently yeah so it’s it’s definitely a question of context sofirst the studies don’t demonstrate that it does so we’re talking about anorexia andbulimia so anorexia was a big problem in the1 970 s people were really die from anorexia and that was a big problem sothe whole thing is that that’s a it’s not a it’s a psychiatric condition ofbody portrait that is beings think they’re fatty but they’re really scrawny and thewhole thing is that it’s it’s a matter of situation so if you’re 16 years oldgirl who’s like 35 pounds sort of thing then yeah you shouldn’t be fasting butthe risk for example of this 60 time age-old 300 -pound man developing anorexianervosa is virtually zero so it’s like yeah I’m not gonna fast thissixteen-year-old adhere thing girl but this 300 -pound diabetic human I amgonna fast so it’s a matter of framework so yeah if there is a history ofanorexia nervosa then yeah you have to be cautious and you might try insteadjust to adjust their diets and so on and I ever say that fasting it’s it’s aweapon right it’s a weapon in the fight against obesity if you use it wrong it’sit can hurt like it can kill you the so those people in the 70 s when Twiggy wasreally popular and substance like a lot of a lot of girls died it’s like a seriousproblem but that doesn’t mean that you shouldn’t utilization it in the 60 year old manbecause he’s gonna die of his coronary thrombosis or he’s gonna die of category 2diabetes in dialysis perfect thanks Priscilla pleaseso excellent representation could you speak to the data on intermittentfasting on the brain and cognitive functionyeah that’s really fascinating topic actually and there’s not a huge amountof data but the it appears that intermittent fasting or fasting ingeneral improves cognitive function which is you know a lot of beings havethe opposite and this is one of the other big delusions so you are familiar with I have towork so I’m not going to be able to concentrate when you don’t eat it turnsout that if you do studies of cache and so on its improved so there are storiesfrom you know antiquity so the Pythagoras the far-famed Greekmathematician for example would require his students to fast before coming intointo class because it would improve their cognitive office and that’sagain because you’re allowing your your you know instead of eating and all theblood sort of working on digestion you can you have that available forcognitive function and if you think about Thanksgiving for example if yousay oh you had this big meal it’s like do you feel like really really sharpafterwards it’s like most people only want to sit down and watch some footballbecause they’re sort of sluggish they call it menu coma and nonsense so thecognitive role is actually increase I ever look back there had that foundI read this fascinating book called unbroken which is about captives of warin Japan and one of the legislations they this this man who is who was literallystarving says that he detects his his you know the other captives and and hesays one is like reading a book a hundred percent from recollection and anotherlearn Norwegian within a few weeks he says this is the astonishing mental clarityof starvation I’m like whoa like they knew about this like why didn’t anybodytell us right so what’s what’s fascinating is that in Silicon Valleyintermittent fasting is taken off like crazy and it’s not because these youknow 20 -somethings skinny computer geniuses need to lose weight they don’tbut it’s a extremely highly competitive world and if you can increase your cognitivefunction it’s the difference between Facebook and MySpace right it could meanmillions of dollars so they’re fasting becausethey demand an advantage and you are familiar with even in in sports you see this as well so wework with some nobility contestants some of whom are like fighters for example andthey’re like whoa I can’t believe it because I’m fasting and I can seeeverything right because their gumptions are increased and why it’s because thesympathetic tone is increased noradrenaline is increased so this isnot because of some you know psychology it’s because of real physiology theyfeel better they feel sharper and it’s like yeah because “ve been thinking about” it for asecond if you’re a fighter like an privileged boxer like multiplemartial arts or whatever do you want to be the hungry wolf or do you want to bethat lion that simply ate privilege because that string that precisely snack is just lyingthere in the Sun and the hungry wolf is sharp-worded and so on so the cognitivefunction is actually increased significantly can it do things likeprevent Alzheimer’s that’s a really interesting question I don’t have ananswer but my my guess is yes because again you activate this sort of processcalled at otha G which is where you’re clearing out some of the old proteinsincluding perhaps some of the protein that’s clog up the ability in the endyou’re increasing your mitochondrial state and all this stuff which itincreases your bioenergetics of the mitochondria those cadres that provideenergy and you’re able to increase it you see increased mitochondrialbiogenesis with fasting for example increased turnover and so on so it’s avery powerful therapy that’s been used for countless many years not because peoplethought it was unhealthy for you but because people thought it was extremelyhealthy we are running a little bit over so I want to ask you guys want to stayand do Q& A or do you want to go drink coffee yay okay I’m gonna go back to thetext iron real quick obvious studies that display decreased prevalence ofdiabetes in specific populations which has now been fasting for religious and spiritualreasons for thousands of years this is a good question because they’ve studiedRamadan and I was talking with some dr.Seif read about this Ramadan turns outnot to be very good so ramadan is the holy month of fasting you’re not allowedto eat from sunup to sundown so the original mind the ProphetMuhammad was a very great proponent of fasting you’re supposed to fast twice aweek and then Ramadan and you’re supposed to eat exactly a little bit tosustain you is about to change what was happening in real world kind of 2018 is that thepeople wake up at 4 a.m. canyon themselves and then they fast andthen when the Sun Goes Down their imbibe bathtubs of coca-cola and gorgingthemselves again and that’s not really super healthful for you so unfortunatelyyou don’t have that data there is emerging data so it was just publishedactually last week I feel where they use intermittent fasting programmes andwhat they found was that it could be just as effective as any of the otherdietary regimen we’ve published some cases where people and implement theseintrument fasting approaches and are able to get get off of insulin and so onbecause again it’s not difficult to understand you don’t ingest your bloodSugar’s come down blood Sugar’s come down don’t give your medications andpretty soon if you do that regularly you’ll lose weight as you lose weightthe diabetes gets better so it’s it’s a it’s it employments patently and I don’tthink there’s much mistrust excellent we’ll take a question from the storey sure thank you for the message I just wantedto share it’s more of specific comments than a question I we have been doing theintermittent fasting program in our avoidance program in conjunction withit with a CrossFit box happy to report that over the last year that we’ve beendoing doing this our patients have lost 1.25 tons of value a fatty and gained 478 pounds of muscle or lean mass during that time so there’s a question from the text linewhat are your thoughts on carb cycling and fatty loss represent restraint carbs for3 to 4 epoches then having very high carb days in rounds there’s not really anygood data so does it work it’s possible you are familiar with I too tell people not to counttheir macros because again it’s it’s not your figure doesn’t know what you’reeating it doesn’t have carbohydrate sensors for example has insulin which isa hormone so it’s but it’s not just the carbohydrate so there are populations inthe world like all kanawha for example in Kotova where the government has studied thisand parties eat unusually very high carbohydrate uptake so I come you knowmy family’s from Hong kong residents and China if you look at the 1980 s they’re actuallyeating chiefly grey rice and vegetable so if you look at the lay map studythey’re eating like 350 grams of carbohydrates per era almost all whiterice then there’s almost no obesity and virtually no no type-2 diabetes but thedifference is that they’re not chewing all the time there’s no sugar intake andso on so you know I I think that cycling it is is possible as long as you’re notstill stimulating insulin and you know dr.Davis talked about the differencebetween say carbohydrates amylopectin a which is found in grains and nuts whichhave amylopectin see it’s completely different the physiologic consequence iscompletely different but there’s both still carbohydrate so you really can’tequate the two that is eating bread I think is relatively obesogenic whereaseating beans is probably not and there’s a lot of studies on snacking beans and itseems to be fairly healthy so time to say carbs it’s very different eatingbread amylopectin a epoch and munching beans amylopectin C so that’s why I say wellit’s it’s it’s much more complicated than just carbs like it’s a good startbut at the end of the day it’s not the whole answer so if you’re gonna ingest highlot of teenages then you’re probably okay if you’re gonna eat a lot of bread andsugar then you’re probably not gonna be okaydoing that but they’re both still carbohydrates so it is a bit morecomplicated than that so adhering to again trying to make things simple whichis again going back to the 60 s it’s like simply a real food stay away from thesugar stay away from snacking don’t eat all the time like these are the thingslike your grandmother would have told you we’ve got a question here yeahthat’s a great question again not a lot of data on that because they justhaven’t been done so we know there’s clearly a link between obesity andcancer so the w-h-o categorizes I feel 11 or something two cancers as obesityrelated including breast and colorectal two of the most common cancer so we knowin the lab for example there’s a lot of insulin receptors on breast cancer forexample but does that mean lowering insulin through intermittent fastingthrough low-spirited carbohydrate diets is going to work I think it will but is there anyactual indicate not not a whole lot and the other thing is that my idea isthat if you try to take care of it after the cancer has developed especiallyafter it’s metastasized it’s it’s probably not gonna be enough it issomething that you want to use to prevent cancer more than you want to tryand treat cancer with because I don’t know that it’s going to be strong enoughto do anything by the time you get to that stage but there’s clearly a associate Imean the link between diet and cancer is just a fascinating one because againthis whole focus of cancer medicine in the last kind of 3040 years cancer as agenetic disease I mean it’s so wrong and so stupid like frankly I don’t know howany smart party can look at the disease and look at the progress andthink that we’re doing well so you take a Japanese woman in Japan you move thatJapanese woman to San Francisco and her rate of breast cancer will triple whatand that say to you this is a genetic disease like nothing it’s not a geneticdisease right it’s stupid however do things like the Cancer Genome Atlaswhich sucks out like so much research dollars looking at oh hey we spotted thisgene that’s associated with breast cancer and all these little ol girls aregoing out on their steps with their pink ribbonsyou know earnestly paying money and we’re just pissing it apart I’m lookingat the genetics of this thing and it was not a genetic disease so why don’t weinstead look at some of these therapies looking at it from a new paradigm from asort of metabolic mitochondrial infection State and one of the things I think toowhich is fascinating is the fasting it actually improves mitochondrial mansion sotherefore could that be a potentially useful therapy to prevent thedevelopment of cancer because Tom says if you have mitochondria you if you havehealthy mitochondria you don’t get cancer so that’s a mesmerizing thing butthat the amount of research that has gone into it is sort of minisculebecause we’ve you know obtain every single gene you know you know geneticmutation and it turns out there’s like a hundred of them and the patient next toher has 100 completely different genetic mutations so how are you gonna treatthat it’s like where has there been any useful care so I think that the it’sit’s a fascinating question but unfortunately I don’t have those answersyet and hopefully we can get some answers but we’d have to really startchanging the thinking of a lot of the cancer cancerous likeI mean of all the areas of Medicine like that’s the worst one right they shape theleast progress of anybody we have one last question yeah so there is going tobe a period of adaptation when you go from you are familiar with high-pitched carb low-pitched carb whichis the keto flu and so on fasting is is sort of the same becauseif you’re adapted to eating or if you’re adapted to eat to fatten metabolizing fatwhether your fat comes from the steak or whether your overweight comes from your bodyfat makes a difference so if you’re on a sort of relatively low carbohydrate dietthen your form will get the energy it needs so if you do muscle biopsies forexample of parties “youre seeing” up regulation of the genes that areinvolved in oxidation of fat so your muscle comes more adapted to overweight burningbasically that’s all it is so during employ your muscles shouldget whatever energy it takes I signify if you think about the any we for examplewho are eating all meat because there’s no vegetables in the High Arctic they’reable to do whatever they need to hunt those shuts and hunting those whales and soon so your figure will adjust to it but there is if you’re trying to transitionyou have to be aware of this sort of two to four week age where there’s anadaptation but after that again your organization like you don’t have to you knowassuming that you have adequate solid accumulations and so again an average personhas 25% overweight so if you’re talking about privileged athletes even a marathoner is atabout 10% mas solid so acquiring “youve had” that then your body’s gonna get whateverenergy it needs from from your accumulations of energy so there’s actually a bigmovement in a LEED athletics to do this so-called training in the fasted Stateso it’s a it’s a highly very interesting idea because what you do is you fast for2 4 hours then you do your workout then you eat and sometimes they ingest a lot sowe we work with some professional these who are eating sort of five or8, 000 calories at a time like a lot so the the place of it is that if you fastfor the 24 hours what you’re gonna do is you’re in going to increase againsympathetic tint you’re going to increase noradrenaline and growthhormone so the increase in the noradrenaline means you can workoutharder than you did before because you’re the hungry wolf instead of thesort of stated lion then you feed and your rise hormone is high so you’reactually going to increase the the production processes proteins because when youexercise you’re breaking down muscle protein so therefore the bottom line iswhen you’re talking about elite athletics what you’ve got is the abilityto train harder and recover faster and we are talking about those sort ofmillimeters or whatever it’s a huge advantage so we actually have a lot ofpeople talking about doing that so it was sort of professional and an Olympicoffice because again they know that the difference between that multi-milliondollar Nike contract and d-league sort of basketball is just a little bit sothis this whole idea is actually coming around there’s not a lot of data but thephysiology suggests that this this sort of training in the fasted State is goingto be a potentially useful adjunct to treatment like that is you know in whenyou treat beings like there’s no absolute so some people will cherish it andsome people will detest it some people will respond well and somepeople won’t but what the hell is always say is that it’s a therapeutic option so youeven try it and if you do better on it then enormous if you don’t do better honorthen just go back to what you used to do because these are these you know you canchange but yeah physiologically there’s nothing to to block you from usingfasting and some people are doing it deliberately to to increase performanceyou

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